A Thorough Evaluation of CSS-in-JS

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Questioning what’s much more difficult than selecting a JavaScript framework? You guessed it: selecting a CSS-in-JS resolution. Why? As a result of there are greater than 50 libraries on the market, every of them providing a novel set of options.

We examined 10 completely different libraries, that are listed right here in no explicit order: Styled JSX, styled-components, Emotion, Deal with, TypeStyle, Fela, Stitches, JSS, Goober, and Compiled. We discovered that, though every library gives a various set of options, lots of these options are literally generally shared between most different libraries.

So as an alternative of reviewing every library individually, we’ll analyse the options that stand out essentially the most. This may assist us to higher perceive which one matches finest for a particular use case.

Observe: We assume that for those who’re right here, you’re already acquainted with CSS-in-JS. Should you’re on the lookout for a extra elementary submit, you possibly can try “An Introduction to CSS-in-JS.”

Widespread CSS-in-JS options

Most actively maintained libraries that sort out CSS-in-JS assist all the next options, so we are able to take into account them de-facto.

Scoped CSS

All CSS-in-JS libraries generate distinctive CSS class names, a method pioneered by CSS modules. All kinds are scoped to their respective part, offering encapsulation with out affecting any styling outlined exterior the part.

With this function built-in, we by no means have to fret about CSS class identify collisions, specificity wars, or wasted time spent arising with distinctive class names throughout the whole codebase.

This function is invaluable for component-based growth.

SSR (Server-Facet Rendering)

When contemplating Single Web page Apps (SPAs) — the place the HTTP server solely delivers an preliminary empty HTML web page and all rendering is carried out within the browser — Server-Facet Rendering (SSR) may not be very helpful. Nevertheless, any web site or utility that must be parsed and listed by engines like google will need to have SSR pages and kinds should be generated on the server as nicely.

The identical precept applies to Static Website Turbines (SSG), the place pages together with any CSS code are pre-generated as static HTML recordsdata at construct time.

The excellent news is that all libraries we’ve examined assist SSR, making them eligible for mainly any kind of challenge.

Automated vendor prefixes

Due to the complicated CSS standardization course of, it would take years for any new CSS function to develop into obtainable in all well-liked browsers. One strategy geared toward offering early entry to experimental options is to ship non-standard CSS syntax beneath a vendor prefix:

/* WebKit browsers: Chrome, Safari, most iOS browsers, and many others */
-webkit-transition: all 1s ease;

/* Firefox */
-moz-transition: all 1s ease;

/* Web Explorer and Microsoft Edge */
-ms-transition: all 1s ease;

/* previous pre-WebKit variations of Opera */
-o-transition: all 1s ease;

/* customary */
transition: all 1s ease;

Nevertheless, it seems that vendor prefixes are problematic and the CSS Working Group intends to cease utilizing them sooner or later. If we wish to absolutely assist older browsers that don’t implement the usual specification, we’ll must know which options require a vendor prefix.

Luckily, there are instruments that enable us to make use of the usual syntax in our supply code, producing the required vendor prefixed CSS properties routinely. All CSS-in-JS libraries additionally present this function out-of-the-box.

No inline kinds

There are some CSS-in-JS libraries, like Radium or Glamor, that output all type definitions as inline kinds. This method has an enormous limitation, as a result of it’s inconceivable to outline pseudo lessons, pseudo-elements, or media queries utilizing inline kinds. So, these libraries needed to hack these options by including DOM occasion listeners and triggering type updates from JavaScript,  basically reinventing native CSS options like :hover, :focus and lots of extra.

It’s additionally typically accepted that inline kinds are much less performant than class names. It’s normally a discouraged observe to make use of them as a major strategy for styling elements.

All present CSS-in-JS libraries have stepped away from utilizing inline kinds, adopting CSS class names to use type definitions.

Full CSS assist

A consequence of utilizing CSS lessons as an alternative of inline kinds is that there’s no limitation concerning what CSS properties we are able to and may’t use. Throughout our evaluation we have been particularly desirous about:

pseudo lessons and components;media queries;keyframe animations.

All of the libraries we’ve analyzed provide full assist for all CSS properties.

Differentiating options

That is the place it will get much more attention-grabbing. Virtually each library gives a novel set of options that may extremely affect our resolution when selecting the suitable resolution for a specific challenge. Some libraries pioneered a particular function, whereas others selected to borrow and even enhance sure options.

React-specific or framework-agnostic?

It’s not a secret that CSS-in-JS is extra prevalent throughout the React ecosystem. That’s why some libraries are particularly constructed for React: Styled JSX, styled-components, and Stitches.

Nevertheless, there are many libraries which might be framework-agnostic, making them relevant to any challenge: Emotion, Deal with, TypeStyle, Fela, JSS or Goober.

If we have to assist vanilla JavaScript code or frameworks aside from React, the choice is easy: we must always select a framework-agnostic library. However when coping with a React utility, we now have a a lot wider vary of choices which in the end makes the choice harder. So let’s discover different standards.

Kinds/Part co-location

The flexibility to outline kinds together with their elements is a really handy function, eradicating the necessity to change back-and-forth between two completely different recordsdata: the .css or .much less/.scss file containing the kinds and the part file containing the markup and habits.

React Native StyleSheets, Vue.js SFCs, or Angular Elements assist co-location of kinds by default, which proves to be an actual profit throughout each the event and the upkeep phases. We all the time have the choice to extract the kinds right into a separate file, in case we really feel that they’re obscuring the remainder of the code.

Virtually all CSS-in-JS libraries assist co-location of kinds. The one exception we encountered was Deal with, which requires us to outline the kinds in a separate .deal with.ts file, equally to how CSS Modules work.

Kinds definition syntax

There are two completely different strategies we are able to use to outline our kinds. Some libraries assist just one methodology, whereas others are fairly versatile and assist each of them.

Tagged Templates syntax

The Tagged Templates syntax permits us to outline kinds as a string of plain CSS code inside a regular ES Template Literal:

// take into account “css” being the API of a generic CSS-in-JS library
const heading = css`
font-size: 2em;
colour: ${myTheme.colour};

We will see that:

CSS properties are written in kebab case similar to common CSS;JavaScript values might be interpolated;we are able to simply migrate current CSS code with out rewriting it.

Some issues to remember:

As a way to get syntax spotlight and code recommendations, a further editor plugin is required; however this plugin is normally obtainable for well-liked editors like VSCode, WebStorm, and others.For the reason that ultimate code have to be ultimately executed in JavaScript, the type definitions should be parsed and transformed to JavaScript code. This may be achieved both at runtime, or at construct time, incurring a small overhead in bundle dimension, or computation.

Object Kinds syntax

The Object Kinds syntax permits us to outline kinds as common JavaScript Objects:

// take into account “css” being the API of a generic CSS-in-JS library
const heading = css({
fontSize: “2em”,
colour: myTheme.colour,

We will see that:

CSS properties are written in camelCase and string values have to be wrapped in quotes;JavaScript values might be referenced as anticipated;it doesn’t really feel like writing CSS, as as an alternative we outline kinds utilizing a barely completely different syntax however with the identical property names and values obtainable in CSS (don’t really feel intimidated by this, you’ll get used to it very quickly);migrating current CSS would require a rewrite on this new syntax.

Some issues to remember:

Syntax highlighting comes out-of-the-box, as a result of we’re truly writing JavaScript code.To get code completion, the library should ship CSS sorts definitions, most of them extending the favored CSSType bundle.For the reason that kinds are already written in JavaScript, there’s no extra parsing or conversion required.

LibraryTagged templateObject kindsstyled-components✅✅Emotion✅✅Goober✅✅Compiled✅✅Fela🟠✅JSS🟠✅Deal with❌✅TypeStyle❌✅Stitches❌✅Styled JSX✅❌
✅  Full assist         🟠  Requires plugin          ❌  Unsupported

Kinds making use of methodology

Now that we all know what choices can be found for type definition, let’s take a look at tips on how to apply them to our elements and components.

Utilizing a category attribute / className prop

The best and most intuitive approach to apply the kinds is to easily connect them as classnames. Libraries that assist this strategy present an API that returns a string which can output the generated distinctive classnames:

// take into account “css” being the API of a generic CSS-in-JS library
const heading_style = css({
colour: “blue”

Subsequent, we are able to take the heading_style, which incorporates a string of generated CSS class names, and apply it to our HTML factor:

// Vanilla DOM utilization
const heading = `<h1 class=”${heading_style}”>Title</h1>`;

// React-specific JSX utilization
perform Heading() {
return <h1 className={heading_style}>Title</h1>;

As we are able to see, this methodology just about resembles the normal styling: first we outline the kinds, then we connect the kinds the place we’d like them. The educational curve is low for anybody who has written CSS earlier than.

Utilizing a <Styled /> part

One other well-liked methodology, that was first launched by the styled-components library (and named after it), takes a distinct strategy.

// take into account “styled” being the API for a generic CSS-in-JS library
const Heading = styled(“h1”)({
colour: “blue”

As an alternative of defining the kinds individually and attaching them to current elements or HTML components, we use a particular API by specifying what kind of factor we wish to create and the kinds we wish to connect to it.

The API will return a brand new part, having classname(s) already utilized, that we are able to render like every other part in our utility. This mainly removes the mapping between the part and its kinds.

Utilizing the css prop

A more moderen methodology, launched by Emotion, permits us to go the kinds to a particular prop, normally named css. This API is on the market just for JSX-based syntax.

// React-specific JSX syntax
perform Heading() {
return <h1 css={{ colour: “blue” }}>Title</h1>;

This strategy has a sure ergonomic profit, as a result of we don’t must import and use any particular API from the library itself. We will merely go the kinds to this css prop, equally to how we might use inline kinds.

Observe that this practice css prop just isn’t a regular HTML attribute, and must be enabled and supported by way of a separate Babel plugin supplied by the library.

LibraryclassName<Styled />css propstyled-components❌✅✅Emotion❌✅✅Goober✅✅🟠 2Compiled🟠 1✅✅Fela✅❌❌JSS✅🟠 2❌Deal with✅❌❌TypeStyle✅❌❌Stitches✅✅🟠 1Styled JSX✅❌❌
✅  Full assist          🟠 1  Restricted assist          🟠 2  Requires plugin          ❌  Unsupported

Kinds output

There are two mutually unique strategies to generate and ship kinds to the browser. Each strategies have advantages and drawbacks, so let’s analyze them intimately.

<type>-injected DOM kinds

Most CSS-in-JS libraries inject kinds into the DOM at runtime, utilizing both a number of <type> tags, or utilizing the CSSStyleSheet API to handle kinds immediately throughout the CSSOM. Throughout SSR, kinds are all the time appended as a <type> tag contained in the <head> of the rendered HTML web page.

There are just a few key benefits and most well-liked use circumstances for this strategy:

Inlining the kinds throughout SSR gives an enhance in web page loading efficiency metrics resembling FCP (First Contentful Paint), as a result of rendering just isn’t blocked by fetching a separate .css file from the server.It gives out-of-the-box crucial CSS extraction throughout SSR by inlining solely the kinds required to render the preliminary HTML web page. It additionally removes any dynamic kinds, thus additional bettering loading time by downloading much less code.Dynamic styling is normally simpler to implement, as this strategy seems to be extra suited to extremely interactive consumer interfaces and Single-Web page Functions (SPA), the place most elements are client-side rendered.

The drawbacks are typically associated to the full bundle dimension:

a further runtime library is required for dealing with dynamic styling within the browser;the inlined SSR kinds received’t be cached out-of-the-box and they’ll should be shipped to the browser upon every request since they’re a part of the .html file rendered by the server;the SSR kinds which might be inlined within the .html web page will likely be despatched to the browser once more as JavaScript assets throughout the rehydration course of.

Static .css file extraction

There’s a really small variety of libraries that take a completely completely different strategy. As an alternative of injecting the kinds within the DOM, they generate static .css recordsdata. From a loading efficiency standpoint, we get the identical benefits and disadvantages that include writing plain CSS recordsdata.

The complete quantity of shipped code is far smaller, since there isn’t a want for extra runtime code or rehydration overhead.Static .css recordsdata profit from out-of-the-box caching contained in the browser, so subsequent requests to the identical web page received’t fetch the kinds once more.This strategy appears to be extra interesting when coping with SSR pages or Static Generated pages since they profit from default caching mechanisms.

Nevertheless, there are some necessary drawbacks we have to be aware of:

The primary go to to a web page, with an empty cache, will normally have an extended FCP when utilizing this methodology in comparison with the one talked about beforehand; so deciding if we wish to optimize for first-time customers or returning guests may play an important function when selecting this strategy.All dynamic kinds that can be utilized on the web page will likely be included within the pre-generated bundle, doubtlessly resulting in bigger .css assets that should be loaded up entrance.

Virtually all of the libraries that we examined implement the primary methodology, injecting the kinds into the DOM. The one examined library which helps static .css file extraction is Deal with. There are different libraries that assist this function, like Astroturf, Linaria, and style9, which weren’t included in our ultimate evaluation.

Atomic CSS

Some libraries took optimizations one step additional, implementing a method known as atomic CSS-in-JS, impressed by frameworks resembling Tachyons or Tailwind.

As an alternative of producing CSS lessons containing all of the properties that have been outlined for a particular factor, they generate a novel CSS class for every distinctive CSS property/worth mixture.

/* basic, non-atomic CSS class */
._wqdGktJ {
colour: blue;
show: block;
padding: 1em 2em;

/* atomic CSS lessons */
._ktJqdG { colour: blue; }
._garIHZ { show: block; }
/* short-hand properties are normally expanded */
._kZbibd { padding-right: 2em; }
._jcgYzk { padding-left: 2em; }
._ekAjen { padding-bottom: 1em; }
._ibmHGN { padding-top: 1em; }

This permits a excessive diploma of reusability as a result of every of those particular person CSS lessons might be reused wherever within the code base.

In idea, this works actually nice within the case of enormous purposes. Why? As a result of there’s a finite variety of distinctive CSS properties which might be wanted for a whole utility. Thus, the scaling issue just isn’t linear, however reasonably logarithmic, leading to much less CSS output in comparison with non-atomic CSS.

However there’s a catch: particular person class names have to be utilized to every factor that requires them, leading to barely bigger HTML recordsdata:

<!– with basic, non-atomic CSS lessons –>
<h1 class=”_wqdGktJ”>…</h1>

<!– with atomic CSS lessons –>
<h1 class=”_ktJqdG _garIHZ _kZbibd _jcgYzk _ekAjen _ibmHGN”>…</h1>

So mainly, we’re shifting code from CSS to HTML. The ensuing distinction in dimension is determined by too many features for us to attract a particular conclusion, however typically talking, it ought to lower the full quantity of bytes shipped to the browser.


CSS-in-JS will dramatically change the way in which we writer CSS, offering many advantages and bettering our general growth expertise.

Nevertheless, selecting which library to undertake just isn’t easy and all selections include many technical compromises. As a way to determine the library that’s finest suited to our wants, we now have to grasp the challenge necessities and its use circumstances:

Are we utilizing React or not? React purposes have a wider vary of choices, whereas non-React options have to make use of a framework agnostic library.Are we coping with a extremely interactive utility, with client-side rendering? On this case, we in all probability aren’t very involved in regards to the overhead of rehydration, or care that a lot about extracting static .css recordsdata.Are we constructing a dynamic web site with SSR pages? Then, extracting static .css recordsdata might in all probability be a greater possibility, as it could enable us to learn from caching.Do we have to migrate current CSS code? Utilizing a library that helps Tagged Templates would make the migration simpler and quicker.Will we wish to optimize for first-time customers or returning guests? Static .css recordsdata provide the most effective expertise for returning guests by caching the assets, however the first go to requires a further HTTP request that blocks web page rendering.Will we replace our kinds incessantly? All cached .css recordsdata are nugatory if we incessantly replace our kinds, thus invalidating any cache.Will we re-use numerous kinds and elements? Atomic CSS shines if we reuse numerous CSS properties in our codebase.

Answering the above questions will assist us determine what options to search for when selecting a CSS-in-JS resolution, permitting us to make extra educated selections.

The submit A Thorough Evaluation of CSS-in-JS appeared first on CSS-Methods.

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